A collective agreement, collective agreement (CLA) or collective agreement (CLA) is a written contract negotiated by one or more unions with the management of a company (or employers` organisation) that governs workers` working conditions. This includes regulating workers` wages, benefits and obligations, as well as the obligations and responsibilities of the employer or employer, and often involves rules relating to the dispute settlement procedure. This contrasts with the past, when collective bargaining rules were largely defined by unions and employers themselves and the role of government was limited.  However, it now seems that it is only legislation that makes it possible to enforce national agreements between the main trade unions and employers` organisations and to eliminate pirate agreements. The gender pay gap is often the subject of political and trade union discussion, but it is not a problem that is only related to wage flexibility. According to the ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics), women receive on average 10% lower wages than their male counterparts, other conditions being the same. It should be stressed, however, that these forms of wage flexibility favour women and are penalised by individual negotiations. Trade unions tend to view individually negotiated wage flexibility as less favourable to women than conventional wage flexibility. In February 2013, telecommunications companies and unions negotiated a new CCNL that set better terms than the previous agreement. The new CCNL will continue until December 31, 2014.
In the Common Law, Ford v A.U.E.F. , the courts once ruled that collective agreements were not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act of 1971, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s cabinet), provided that collective agreements were binding, unless a written contractual clause explained otherwise. After the death of the Heath government, the law was rescinded to reflect the tradition of the UK`s labour relations policy of legally refraining from workplace disputes. Collective bargaining in the private sector in Italy takes place mainly at two levels: at sectoral level and at company level. However, recent changes to the system may have strengthened collective bargaining at company level, while the number of agreements signed by non-representative institutions has increased. At the enterprise level, negotiations include mechanisms for improving productivity and promoting innovation, as well as the distribution of the benefits of increased productivity. . . .